Sex selection is available for patients who wish to select the sex of the embryo used in their fertility treatment. The sex chromosome found in the sperm (X or Y) is the determining factor for sex. Methods to sort sperm are inaccurate due to limitations in current technology. The only reliable method for sex selection is IVF followed by embryo biopsy and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies-Aneuploidy (PGT-A, previously called PGS)
For PGT-A, an embryo biopsy procedure is performed by sampling 5 to 6 cells from the part of the blastocyst that becomes the placenta. These cells are then sent to a genetic testing company to determine whether the embryo has a correct number of chromosomes and the sex of the embryo. PGT-A is 99% accurate for sex. Results are usually available within two weeks.
Preimplantation Genetic Technologies-Monogenic (PGT-M, previously called PGD) can be used to screen an embryo for a known mutation. Prior to undergoing IVF and PGT-M, a genetic probe of the mutation will be created to look for the presence of the mutation in each embryo. Creating the probe requires blood samples from the affected individual and possibly other family members and may take 6-12 weeks to create. For PGT-M, an embryo biopsy procedure is performed by sampling 5 to 6 cells from the part of the blastocyst that becomes the placenta. These cells are then sent to the genetic testing company to apply the probe and determine whether the embryo is a carrier of the mutation. PGT-M is highly accurate.
PGT-A and PGT-M significantly reduce the risk of chromosomal and genetic abnormalities but are not guarantees against birth defects.